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Introduction
Psychological development of children depends on the way parents interact with them. Though every parent wishes to provide the best at home they may not be giving the best to their children as no fool proof method of bringing up children has been invented. This is because no two children are alike. There are more differences between children than is ordinarily believed. More over, culture, society, gender of the child and a host of other factors interact with the upbringing of children. Parenting style can effect the child’ personality in different ways. (Dr. Krishna Prasad Sreedhar, 2003).
Parenting comprises all the tasks involved in raising a child to an independent adult. Parenting begins even before the child is born or adopted and may last until the death of the parent or child. Parenting is a part of the relationship within a family.
Parenting involves physical and social aspects.
· Physical care
· Reliably providing shelter, furniture, medical care, physical safety, and food.
· Social development and emotional support
· Love, entertainment, physical touch
· Social skills, etiquette
· Moral and spiritual development
· Norms and contributions to the child’s religion
Parenting Style
 
 
Nancy Darling said, parenting is a complex acting that includes many specific behaviors that work individually and together to influence child outcome. (Nancy Darling, 1993).
Development psychologists have been interested in how parents influence the development of children’s social and instrumental competence since at least the 1920s. One of the most robust approaches to this area is the study of what has been called “parenting style”.
 
 
Parenting theories
 
 
There are probably as many theories about being a parent as there are types of child.
James Dobson, like many authors from the 1970s, and ‘80s, believes that there are three broad stands of parenting style. The authoritarian (where children’s whishes are not consulted and parents expect them to do as they’re told without discussion), the authoritative (where there is discussion, parents and children listern to each other, and parents offer firm guidelines and boundaries, but with flexibility) and the permissive (where child do as they like and parents don’t take much notice). He proposes that the authoritative ground is the most healthy, and research shows that the most unhappy teens and adults come from extremely permissive homes. He does stress that parents must give unconditional love, and that this is probably the most important factor in children’s lives. Parents must tell children (repeatedly) how important they are to them, never compare them negatively with others, never call them rude, never suggest that they are less important.
Kevin Leman, another American writer, is also firm believer in loving guidance, but stresses most of all the use of natural and logical consequences with corporal punishment only as a last resort, on rare occasions. He claims that parents should not protect children from the consequence of their actions.
Ross Campbell, a parenting author, does not really focus on discipline. According to him, most problems occur because of a child’s repressed anger, because their parents are not succeeding in expressing their love for their children. His theory of ‘emotional tanks’was the one, most helpful when children were smaller. When a child starts becoming aggressive or un co-operative, Ross Campbell suggests that child’s ‘tank’ is probably low, needs to be filled before anything can be done about practical problems.
Ross Campbell and James Dobson both believed that in healthy families, there was mutual respect i.e. parents and children listened to each other. There was discussion about all issues. Parents are needed to express unconditional love and should give clear boundaries to young children. (Parenting theories, 2000).
Most researchers who attempt to describe broad parental milieu rely on Diana Baumrind’s concept of parenting style. The construct of parenting style is used to capture normal variations in parents’ attempts to control and socialize their children (Baumrind, 1991). Two points are critical in understanding this definition. First, parenting style typology Baumrind developed should not be understood to include deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive or neglectful homes. Second, Baumrind assumes that normal parenting revolves around issues of control. Although parents may differ in how they try to control or socialize their children, it is assumed that the primary role of all parents is to influence, teach and control their children.
Parenting style captures two important elements of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demanding ness (Maccoby and Martin, 1983). Parental responsiveness (also referred to as parental warmth or supportiveness) refers to “the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to children’s special needs and demands” (Baumrind, 1991, p. 62). Parental demanding ness (also referred to as behavioral control) refers to “the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys” (Baumrind, 1991, pp. 61-62).
Categorizing parents according to whether they are high or low on parental demanding ness and responsiveness creates a typology of parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative and permissive (Maccoby and Martin, 1983). Each of these parenting styles reflects different naturally occurring patterns of parental values, practices, and behaviors (Baumrind, 1991) and distinct balance of responsiveness and demanding ness.



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References
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Adolescent Development (2004, November 29). Retrieved March 24, 2005, From;http://www.alegent.com/11052.C
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Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style an adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of early adolescence, 11 (1), 56-95.
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Boyd, D. (2005). Team Parenting. Retrieved January 3, 2005, fromhttp://www.denisboyd.com/psychealth/family-parenting/team-parenting...
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INSTRUCTIONS
Respected Sir/Madam
Department of Psychology, IMS, BZU Multan, carries out a number of studies for academic purpose. The present is one of such researchers. The research is concerned about parenting style and personal identity and its effect on Academic Achievement. You are requested to fill the questionnaire concerning the mentioned issue. In front of every item, options are given and you have to tick mark the category that best represents your viewpoint. Please rate each statement in terms of how much true it is for you and put a tick mark in one of the given statements.
You are requested to report what you feel correctly because your true response will help us in better understanding the issue confidential. We assure you that no personal gain will be obtained from this questionnaire and it will only be used for academic purposes under study. The information provided by you will be kept
Thank you very much for cooperation.



Scale of parenting style
Following questions are about the parenting style. Please try to answer the questions honestly, based on your beliefs and what you would really say or do, not have you think it “should” be answer:
1. What is the parent’s job?
  1. To provide constant supervision structured rules so children will act/choose “right”.
  2. To teach children the life skills they need to be self-disciplined, responsible adults.
  3. To make sure children have a happy, carefree childhood.
  1. Who is responsible for controlling the child’s behavior?
  1. Children should do what the more experienced and knowledgeable parents say.
  2. Parents are responsible for teaching children behaviors and skills they need for self-control.
  3. Parents should explain to the children why they should behave and ask for their cooperation.
  1. Who has right?
  1. Parents have superior knowledgeable and experience;
  2. Parents and children both have the right to be treated with dignity and respect.
  3. Children’s rights and needs are more important than the parents.
  1. Who get’s respect?
  1. Children have to earn their parent’s respect before they will receive it.
  2. All people deserve to be treated respectfully, regardless of age or position.
  3. Parents should respect their children so the children will be happy.


  1. How are mistakes handled?

  1. Parents can correct children’s mistakes by expressing disappointment, offering constructive criticism, crying children to try harder, and telling them how to fix the mistake and prevent it later.
  2. Children can learn lessons from mistakes and how to fix them or prevent them in the future.
  3. It is a parent’s responsibility to fix children’s mistakes or protect children from the negative effects.
  1. How are problems solved and decisions made?
  1. Choices are made within limits that respect the rights and needs of others.
  2. Parents should monitor their children’s activities, set goals for the child, and offer rewards or incentives for reaching the goals.
  3. Parents should try to find out what the children want and make them happy.
  1. How are negative feelings handled?
  1. Parents shouldn’t try to change their children’s negative feelings but can teach them how to express them appropriately.
  2. Children should think and feel what their parents think and feel is “right”.
  3. Parents should protect or rescue children fro negative feelings.
  1. Who decides how children should behave, which interests they pursue and the goals they set?
  1. Parents can teach children positive behavior skills so children can set and reach healthy goals.
  2. Parents should set high standards for children and choose interest/goals that will help the children succeed as adults.
  3. Children should be allowed to do whatever interests/goals they want so they’ll be happy.


  1. Who makes the rules and how are they enforced?

  1. Children can have choices, within reasonable limits and understand the value of the rules.
  2. Parents can set structured rules and correct children with constructive criticism and advice.
  3. If parents politely remind children to behave they eventually.
  1. How can parents motivate children?
  1. Parents can teach their children the value of tasks so they are self-motivated to do them.
  2. Children can be motivated by rewards and incentives, acceptance and praise.
  3. If parents do enough for their children, the children will be happy and motivated.
10. How do parents discipline?
  1. Parents can explain children’s behavior choices and hold them accountable for their decisions.
  2. Parents should make their children feel bad for misbehaving and take away special privileges.
  3. Parents shouldn’t punish their children too often or they will lose their children’s love.



Scale of self identity
Here are few statements about your personal identity. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Sr. No.
Strongly disagree
Disagree
Agree
Strongly Agree
1.
I wonder what sort of person I really am.
2.
People seem to change their opinion of me.
3.
I feel certain about what I should do with my life.
4.
I feel uncertain as to whether something is morally right or wrong
5.
Most people seem to agree about what sort of person I am.
6.
I feel my way of life suits me.
7.
My worth is recognized by others.
8.
I feel freer to be my real self when I am away from those who know me.
9.
I feel that what I am doing in life is not really worthwhile.
10.
I feel fit in well in the community in which I live.
11.
I feel proud to be the sort of person I am.
12.
People seem to see me very differently from the way I see my self.
13.
I feel left out.
14.
People seem to disapprove of me.
15.
I change my ideas about what I want from life.
16.
I am unsure as to how people feel about me.
17.
My feelings about my self change.
18.
I feel I am putting on an act or doing something for effect.
19.
I feel proud to be a member of the society in which I live.
Table 1
Parenting style will effect self identity development among adolescents when both fathers and mothers have authoritarian parenting style.
Sr.No.
VAR00001
Father
VAR00002
Mother
VAR00003
Children
1
5.00
6.00
52.00
2
6.00
6.00
55.00
3
6.00
6.00
54.00
4
5.00
6.00
47.00
5
6.00
6.00
52.00
6
6.00
5.00
53.00
7
6.00
6.00
42.00
8
6.00
6.00
46.00
9
6.00
6.00
51.00
10
5.00
6.00
45.00
11
6.00
5.00
35.00
12
6.00
6.00
50.00
13
6.00
6.00
45.00



Table 2
Parenting style will have effects on self identity development among adolescents when mothers are authoritarian and fathers are authoritative parenting style.
Sr.No.
VAR00001
Father
VAR00002
Mother
VAR00003
Children
1
5.00
5.00
56.00
2
6.00
5.00
52.00
3
5.00
5.00
44.00
4
5.00
8.00
58.00
5
6.00
5.00
50.00
6
5.00
5.00
63.00
7
5.00
6.00
43.00
8
6.00
6.00
46.00
9
7.00
5.00
37.00
10
5.00
5.00
56.00
11
6.00
5.00
58.00
12
5.00
6.00
53.00
13
5.00
6.00
50.00



Table 3
Parenting style will have effect of self identity development among adolescent when mothers are authoritarian parenting style and fathers are permissive style.
Sr.No.
VAR00001
Father
VAR00002
Mother
VAR00003
Children
1
5.00
6.00
51.00
2
6.00
5.00
37.00
3
5.00
5.00
42.00
4
6.00
6.00
54.00
5
6.00
5.00
45.00
6
5.00
5.00
57.00
7
5.00
5.00
46.00
8
6.00
7.00
62.00
9
6.00
6.00
60.00
10
6.00
5.00
46.00
11
5.00
6.00
47.00
12
5.00
6.00
50.00
13
6.00
5.00
50.00



Table 4
When mother are authoritative and fathers are authoritarian parenting style.
Sr.No.
VAR00001
Father
VAR00002
Mother
VAR00003
Children
1
5 00
6.00
50.00
2
6.00
6.00
49.00
3
6.00
6.00
36.00
4
5.00
6.00
53.00
5
5.00
6.00
35.00
6
5.00
5.00
56.00
7
6.00
6.00
59.00



Table 5
When mothers and authoritarian and fathers were also authoritative parenting style.
Sr.No.
VAR00001
Father
VAR00002
Mother
VAR00003
Children
1
5 00
5.00
54.00
2
5.00
5.00
52.00
3
5.00
6.00
38.00
4
6.00
6.00
54.00
5
6.00
5.00
51.00
6
5.00
5.00
62.00
7
5.00
6.00
44.00
8
6.00
5.00
45.00



Table 6
When mothers are authoritative and fathers are also authoritative.
Sr.No.
VAR00001
Father
VAR00002
Mother
VAR00003
Children
1
5 00
5.00
39.00
2
6.00
7.00
41.00
3
5.00
5.00
54.00
4
6.00
6.00
54.00
5
5.00
5.00
60.00
6
6.00
6.00
50.00
7
6.00
6.00
48.00
8
5.00
5.00
50.00



Table 7
When mother are permissive and fathers are authoritarian parenting style.
Sr.No.
VAR00001
Father
VAR00002
Mother
VAR00003
Children
1
5 00
5.00
43.00
2
7.00
6.00
44.00
3
7.00
6.00
34.00
4
6.00
5.00
48.00
5
6.00
6.00
46.00
6
6.00
6.00
30.00
7
6.00
6.00
41.00
8
6.00
7.00
42.00
9
5.00
5.00
53.00



Table 8
When mother are permissive and fathers are authoritative parenting style.
Sr.No.
VAR00001
Father
VAR00002
Mother
VAR00003
Children
1
6.00
5.00
45.00
2
6.00
6.00
38.00
3
5.00
6.00
48.00
4
5.00
6.00
60.00
5
6.00
6.00
55.00
6
6.00
6.00
36.00
7
5.00
5.00
34.00
8
5.00
5.00
44.00
9
6.00
6.00
51.00
10
5.00
5.00
74.00



Table 9
When mother and fathers both are permissive parenting style.
Sr.No.
VAR00001
Father
VAR00002
Mother
VAR00003
Children
1
6.00
5.00
50.00
2
6.00
5.00
55.00
3
5.00
5.00
38.00
4
6.00
6.00
40.00
5
5.00
8.00
58.00
6
6.00
6.00
39.00
7
6.00
6.00
40.00
8
6.00
6.00
50.00
9
6.00
6.00
52.00



Table 10
Both boys and girls will have in differences in the development of self identity
Girls
Boys
Sr. No.
X
X2
X
X2
1
42
1764
44
1936
2
74
5476
55
3025
3
45
2025
58
3364
4
35
1225
60
3600
5
50
2500
47
2209
6
40
1600
47
2209
7
50
2500
50
2500
8
49
2401
51
2601
9
50
2500
42
1764
10
50
2500
52
2704
11
38
1444
53
2809
12
39
1512
54
2916
13
45
2025
50
2500
14
48
2304
42
1764
15
60
3600
48
2304
16
36
1296
46
2116
17
41
1681
53
2809
18
56
3136
63
3969
19
52
2704
35
1225
20
50
2500
45
2025
21
51
2601
57
3249
22
39
1521
46
2116
23
41
1681
54
2916
24
44
1936
38
1444
25
55
3025
43
1849
26
58
3364
52
2704
27
45
2025
54
2916
28
62
3844
52
2704
29
40
1600
56
3136
30
88
1444
46
2116
31
30
900
48
2304
32
46
2116
37
1369
33
40
1600
56
3136
34
54
2916
50
2500
35
55
3025
50
2500
36
36
1296
59
3481
37
54
2916
58
3364
38
51
2601
51
2601
39
52
2704
34
1156
40
63
2809
62
3844
41
45
2025
60
3600
42
34
1156
50
2500
43
37
1369
44
1936
44
46
2116
53
2809
45
44
1936
43
1849



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