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Bounded rationality : The principle that states that a manager's ability to act rationally is affected by his cognitive ability and the time constraints of the situation.

Change : To make something different from its current state.

Change Agent : Anyone who possesses enough knowledge and power to guide and facilitate the organizational change effort.

Change management : Change management is a structured process and set of tools for managing the people side of change such that business results are achieved, on time and on budget.

Change management leader :

This role is assigned to an individual who will plan and implement change management plans for the project. The change management leader plays a key role in preparing and enabling both 1) senior leaders to be effective sponsors of change and 2) managers and supervisors to be effective coaches.

Creativity : It refers to the act of generating new and useful ideas, or of re-evaluating or combining old ideas, so as to develop new and useful perspectives in order to satisfy a need. It is the capacity to select, re-arrange, combine, or synthesise existing facts, ideas, images, or expertise in original ways.

Current state : The current state is how things are today. It is business as usual - the processes and tools that make up an employee's daily work. The current state is known and comfortable, and is generally preferred by employees. The current state lays the foundation and context for change management.

First order change : One that occurs in a given system that itself remains unchanged.

Force field analysis :

Lewin's model of systemwide change that helps change agents diagnose the forces that drive and restrain proposed organizational change.

Future state : The future state is how things will be. It is unknown, not well understood and fuzzy to employees. Interestingly, the future state is the primary focus of project teams and business leaders who can sometimes overlook the importance of the current state. The future state describes the outcome change management is working to achieve.

Human capital : Capabilities of the individuals required to provide solutions customers.

Incremental change : In this change environment, a change will take place over a long period of time. The objectives of the change are small and deliberate improvements to a proven and successful business process.

Individual change management : The process and steps an individual goes through to implement a change successfully, whether personal change or professional change. ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement) is one example of an individual change management model that describes the sequence of successful change.

Leaders :

Change Leaders take their people to places they have never been before, i.e. the future state.

Managers : Change Managers handle things. They handle budgets, schedules, problems, etc. They do the day-to-day work to make change happen.

Managing Change : Managing change is the second phase in a change management plan and it includes the tactics the change management team employs to execute the strategy from phase one above. Tactics comes from the Greek word tak-ti-ka meaning to line up in rows or columns as the soldiers do. This is the execution of the strategy by the soldiers. Depending on the assessments by the generals, the soldiers would either lock shields and go forward in rows (if the enemy was making a stand with swordsmen) or go forward in columns (if the enemy was using archers as their first wave) - this is much like the tactics of the change management team based on their strategy developed in preparing for change.

Organizational change : A change that is generated to create a new direction or strategy that is different from the current plan.

Organizational change management : The specific actions and steps that can be taken to implement a change management program.

Preparing for Change :

Preparing for change is the first phase in a change management plan and includes building a change management strategy. Strategy comes from the Greek word stra-te-gi-a meaning “generalship” - the stuff generals do as they prepare for battle (i.e., assessing their army’s strengths and weaknesses, assessing the enemy’s strengths and weaknesses from the scouting reports, assessing the battle field and environment, etc.). In the preparing for change phase, the change management team builds its strategy by assessing the characteristics and readiness of the organizations being impacted as well as the specific characteristics of the change at hand.

Proactive change : Change that is initiated before internal or external market forces change.

Radical change : In this environment, immediate and dramatic change is required over a short time period. Often driven by a crisis or significant opportunity facing the business, these changes are intended to produce dramatic performance improvements in business processes that are broken or no longer applicable to the current business conditions.

Reactive change : Change that occurs as a result of a change in internal or external market forces.

Refreezing : The latter part of the change process in which systems and conditions are introduced that reinforce and maintain the desired behaviours.

Resistance to change :

Forces that are against the change process.

Satisficing : The act of selecting the first acceptable alternative to a problem rather than waiting for the perfect alternative to that problem.

Second order change : One whose occurrence changes the system itself i.e. a change to an altogether different state.

States of change : Many authors and researchers have broken change down into distinct phases. Usually, three distinct phases can be categorized - the future state (how things will be after the change is fully implemented), the current state (how things are today) and the transition state (what will be happening to move from the current to the future states)

Supervisors : These people “oversee” the operations to make sure (reinforce) that change is and has taken place.

Top-down change :

Change that is initiated by managers and works through the organization (generally at a more accelerated pace).

Transition state : The transition state is the process of changing the way work is done. For employees, the transition state creates stress and anxiety. It is the 'implementation' phase of a project. The transition state is where change management can minimize resistance and improve how well and how quickly a change is adopted.

Unfreezing : The first part of the change process whereby the change agent produces disequilibrium between the driving and restraining forces.

Value chain :

The sequential set of primary and support activities that an enterprise performs to turn inputs into value-added outputs for its external customers.

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