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MGMT623 (alt. code=HRM623) GLOSSARY!!!

Affirmative action : A hiring policy that requires employers to analyze the work force for under-representation of protected classes. It involves recruiting minorities and members of protected classes, changing management attitudes or prejudices towards them, removing discriminatory employment practices, and giving preferred treatment to protected classes

Attributes : Characteristics or qualities or properties. Attributes of the leader fall into three categories: mental, physical, and emotional.

Authoritarian leadership : A style of leadership in which the leader tells the employees what needs to be done and how to perform it without getting their advice or ideas

Autocratic leader : A person in charge who retains most of the authority for himself or herself

Behavior modification :

An attempt to change behavior by manipulating rewards and punishment

Behavior shaping : Rewarding any response in the right direction and then rewarding only the closest approximation

Benchmark measures : A set of measurements (metrics) that is used to establish goals for performance improvements. These are often derived from other firms that display "Best In Class" performance.

Benchmarking : The process of measuring the organization's products, services, cost, procedures, etc. against competitors or other organizations that display a "best in class" record

Brainstorming : A technique for teams that is used to generate ideas on a subject. Each person on the team is asked to think creatively and write down as many ideas as possible. After the writing session, the ideas are discussed by the team.

capacity :

The capability of a worker, system, or organization to produce output per time period. It can be classified as budgeted, dedicated, demonstrated, productive, protective, rated, safety, or theoretical.

character : The sum total of an individual's personality traits and the link between a person's values and her behavior

communicating : Comprises the ability to express oneself effectively in individual and group situations, either orally or in writing. It involves a sender transmitting an idea to a receiver.

constraint : Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher lever of performance with respect to her goal.

corporate culture : The set of important assumptions that members of the company share. It is a system of shared values about what is important and beliefs about how the company works. These common assumptions influence the ways the company operates

corrective action :

The implementation of solutions resulting in the reduction or elimination of an identified problem.

counseling : Talking with a person in a way that helps that person solve a problem or helps to create conditions that will cause the person to improve his behavior, character, or values. The providing of basic, technical, and sometimes professional assistance to employees to help them with personal and work related problems.

culture : The long-term complex phenomenon that can be affected by strategic leaders. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the organization. The mature values that create "tradition", the play out of "climate" or "the feel of the organization" over time, and the deep, unwritten code that frames "how we do things around here" contribute to the culture. Organizational culture is a system of shared values, assumptions, beliefs, and norms that unite the members of the organization. Individual leaders cannot easily create or change culture.

decision making : The process of reaching logical conclusions, solving problems, analyzing factual information, and taking appropriate actions based on the conclusions.

Deficiency : Failure to meet a set performance standard.

delegative leadership :

A style of leadership in which the leader entrusts decision making to an employee of a group of employees. The leader is still responsible for their decisions.

diversity : Committing to establish an environment where the full potential of all employees can be tapped by paying attention to, and taking into account their differences in work background, experience, age, gender, race, ethic origin, physical abilities, religious belief, sexual orientation, and other perceived differences

efficiency : A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expected. Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative to expectations.

empowerment : A condition whereby employees have the authority to make decisions and take action in their work areas, jobs, or tasks without prior approval. It allows the employees the responsibility normally associated with staffs. Examples are scheduling, quality, or purchasing decisions.

environment : 1. The political, strategic, or operational context within the organization. 2. The external environment is the environment outside the organization.

esprit :

The spirit, soul, and state of mind of an organization. It is the overall consciousness of the organization that a person identifies with and feels a part of.

ethical climate : The "feel of the organization" about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behavior. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave.

executing :

The ability to complete individual and organizational assigned tasks according to specified standards and within certain time criteria or event criteria

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